The 123 agreement, also known as the U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement, is a historic treaty between the United States and India that significantly changed the landscape of nuclear energy cooperation between the two countries.
The agreement was signed in 2008 by President George W. Bush and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh after years of negotiations. It allows for the transfer of U.S. nuclear technology, materials, and equipment to India for peaceful civilian use in exchange for India`s agreement to separate its civilian and military nuclear facilities and place its civilian facilities under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.
The 123 agreement is crucial for India`s energy security as it allows the country to access nuclear fuel and technology from the U.S. and other countries. It is also important for the U.S. as it provides an opportunity to expand its nuclear energy industry and strengthen its ties with India, a major player in the global economy.
The 123 agreement has been a topic of discussion and debate in the international community, particularly regarding its impact on non-proliferation efforts. Critics argue that the agreement undermines the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty by allowing India, a non-signatory, to access nuclear technology and fuel. Supporters, on the other hand, argue that the agreement promotes global nuclear safety and security by bringing India`s civilian nuclear program under IAEA safeguards.
In conclusion, the 123 agreement is a significant agreement between the U.S. and India that has far-reaching implications for nuclear energy cooperation and non-proliferation efforts. Its impact will continue to be felt for years to come.